hca 311 Essay

hca 311

п»їQuick relief medications: Rescuers Short acting bronchodilators

–   Long Term Control: Controllers

–  Antiinflammatories

Corticosteroids Obstructive Pulmonary Illnesses

Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-

–   Resistance to airflow as a result of airway obstruction/airway narrowing. Throat obstruction may result from gathered secretions, edema, swelling of inner lumen of airways, bronchospasm, or destruction of lung tissue.   –  Airway blockage

–  Air passage narrowing

–   3 Disorders & cystic fibrosis

–  Emphysema

–  Chronic bronchitis

–  Bronchial asthma

Asthma

–   Inflammatory disease causing respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness В

Hyper-responsiveness causes the symptoms of asthma such as wheezing, breathlessness, breasts tightness, and cough В

–   Morbidity/mortality- 4, 000 deaths per year

Causes of Asthma Attacks

–  Allergens- 40% of all factors behind asthma: periodic like pollen; year-round like dust mites, molds, creature dander, feathers, bugs –  Exercise- esp when it's cool, can trigger attack; Meds can ctl –  surroundings pollutions- cities more prone to; smoke, auto-exhaust/air pollutants –  occupational factors- exposed to dirt, pharmaceutical providers; danders, secretions, metals/plastics; understand if that they wear protective gear –  respiratory infections- single many precipitating aspect: when confronted with someone sick and tired, have a lot of secretions пѓ may cause an asthma attack (viral, influenza and rhino virus)- These ^ hyperresponsiveness of airway, will last 2-8 wks after contamination; irritate airway, sinusitis; avoid persons w/cold/flu, take influenza vaccine, AVOID OTC cold/flu meds, might make it even worse –  nasal area and sinusitis problems- sensitized rhinitis, polyps irritate respiratory tract –  Medicine and food additives- esp with nasal polyps; Beta-Blockers (inderal), advisor inhibitors, and yellow color found while food chemicals –   Breathing difficulties triad- nasal polyps, breathing difficulties, and sensitivity to aspirin and NSAIDs –Emotional stress- psychological elements like tension can cause anxiety & anxiety which makes it a whole lot worse during an asthma harm, HR and breathing increases, so bear them calm –  GERD- aspiration of digestive, gastrointestinal content induces vagal neural stimulation пѓ back up, cause bronchoconstriction, breathing passages narrow, can make it worse В

Pathophysiology

–   a couple of hallmarks: Respiratory tract inflammation brings about

–  Hyperresponsiveness (bronchospasm)- tightens, gets inflammed –  Limitation of air flow (acute)

–   Long Term Effects- won't possess signs of chest disease when NOT having an attack! –  Airway remodeling- if inflammation not remedied, resulting in irreversible lung harm В

Analysis

–   " Attacks”

–  Primary Symptoms- wheezing, restlessness, chest firmness, coughing (after exposure to trigger), night/early morning hours, usually not any S/: b/w attacks –  Prolonged expiration- ratio one particular: 2, inspiration shorter, termination longer, can be up to you: 3 or perhaps 1: 5; Takes longer for air to move out of bronchioles, wheezing, surroundings trapping leads to hyperventilation –  Wheeze not really gauge of severity- usually on termination first, in that case can become both; Wheezing Not just a reliable indication of severity of harm! –  Position- feels like suffocating, so seated upright a bit bent ahead, use equipment muscles to breathe, incredibly anxious –  Additional symptoms- atelectasis with diminished inhale; nonproductive cough, thick/white/jelloish sputum, hard to create, hypoxia, hypoxemia (confusion, trouble sleeping пѓ more serious s/: ) ^ panic, inappropriate tendencies, ^ BP, ^ resp rate (> 30), accessory muscle work with В

–  Upper body assessment- hyper-resonance (Noisy/wheezing), atelectasis, dev pneumothorax (air in chest cavity), silent chest= severe obstruction & impending respiratory failing                                                                –  " Silent chest” negative sign- may require ventilators to breathe В

Classification: p. 613, Table 29-2

–   Step 1 : Mild sporadic

–   Step two: Mild consistent

–   3: Moderate consistent

–   Step four: Severe persistent

Diagnostic

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