Human Factors, nontechnical Abilities, and Problems Essay

Human Factors, nontechnical Skills, and Errors

INDIVIDUAL ERRORS AND nontechnical EXPERTISE

Captain Majid Safahani

IRISL Maritime Training Institute

1 ) INTRODUCTION:

Today we have a general consensus among maritime stakeholders that human mistake is the most prominent contributing take into account causing injuries. It is also widely accepted that human mistake is a basic term which will cover a variety of hazardous acts, absences, behaviors and unsafe conditions or a mix of these. An easy review of P& I golf equipment reports and bulletins implies that this standard term makes up more than half with the claims and accidents. The word human error indicates the individual should have acted within a different manner. Experts in maritime field agree on 3 basic factors: 1 . Everyone commits problems.

2 . Human error is generally a result of circumstances beyond the control over those doing the problems. 3. Devices or procedures that depend on perfect individual performance happen to be inherently flawed. It is also agreed that there are quite a few reasons for a person to make errors. These might include: п‚· Interaction failure

п‚· Insufficient effective training

п‚· Memory ciel

п‚· Inattention

п‚· Badly designed equipment

п‚· Exhaustion, tiredness

п‚· Ignorance

п‚· Noisy working circumstances

п‚· Other personal and environmental factors

The above list is not really exhaustive and a lot of them are not related to person's technical abilities and know-how. Professor Michael Barnett in his article " Non-technical Expertise: The essential ingredients in Maritime technology”, 2006 mentioned that; nearly all accidents and incidents are not caused by technical problems nevertheless by the failing of the staff to respond appropriately to the circumstance. He also pointed out that various other safety crucial industries have taken confident measures for improving non-technical skills; the aviation industry is a good example. Most studies claim that maritime accidents happen to be due to improper respond of crew to the situation and not because of technical problems. The aim of this daily news is to review the nontechnical skills on board merchant ships and whether or not they have been provided sufficient benefit by controlling bodies. To be able to reach this kind of aim the next steps have been completely taken;  Review non-technical skills of flight crew

пЃ¶ Identify non-technical skills aboard ships

пЃ¶ Discover related rules in maritime field

пЃ¶ Measure the adequacy and efficiency of the regulations пЃ¶ Conclusion

The modern aviation industry has been chosen mainly because of two reasons; first of all, like ocean going industry it is rather safety essential and subsequently the aviation industry can be considered as one of the leading industries in this context. 2 . NON-TECHNICAL SKILLS OF TRIP CREW:

There are several definitions to get non-technical skills, some might state that it truly is in fact; Just how an individual react and take action when confronted with expected and unexpected problems. According to Oxford aviation academy it can be: " The utilization and co-ordination of all the expertise, knowledge, encounter and assets available to the ships' team, to accomplish or achieve the established goals of security and performance of the passage” In flying industry it really is widely acknowledged that the errors are triggered not simply by technical challenges but as a result of following elements;  Preoccupation with small technical complications

пЃ¶ Failure to delegate jobs and give responsibilities

пЃ¶ Failing to set focus

пЃ¶ inadequate monitoring

пЃ¶ Failure to work with available data

пЃ¶ Failure to communicate objective and programs

пЃ¶ Failure to detect and challenge deviations from regular operating procedures. The flying industry has recognized 4 groups of non-technical skills; 1- Leadership & Management

2- Staff Work and Cooperation

3- Problem Solving and Decision Making

4- Condition Awareness

This has been created from a tool designed for aviators industry (McCulloch et 's, 2008) Flin et al, 1998 within their research subdivided the 4 categories in to two groups; social skills...